70. N. Kambar, Y. K. Go, C. Snyder, M. N. Do, and C. Leal*, "Structural Characterization of Lateral Phase Separation in Polymer–Lipid Hybrid Membranes." in Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press (2024). DOI.



69. M. Kang, Y. K. Go, M. Porras-Gomez, T. Koulaxizis, D. Steer, A. Statt, and C. Leal*, "Cooperative Self-Assembly of Lipid–Polymer Hybrids Stabilizing Highly Ordered Bicontinuous Cubic Phases in Air." Macromolecules 56, 15, 5774–83 (2023). DOI.


68. J. Rueben, D. Steer, and C. Leal*, "Super-swelling behavior of stacked lipid bilayer systems." Eur. Phys. J. E 46, 8, 67 (2023). DOI.


67. L. Zheng, S. Bandara, and C. Leal*, "Lipid nanoparticle topology regulates endosomal escape and delivery of RNA to the cytoplasm." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 120, 27, e2301067120 (2023). DOI.


Highlighted at Chemical & Engineering (C&EN) News (Link)


66. N. Kambar and C. Leal*, "Microfluidic Synthesis of Multilayered Lipid–Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for the Formulation of Low Solubility Drugs." Soft Matter 19, 8, 1596–1605 (2023). DOI.



65. M. Porras-Gómez, H. Kim, M. T. Dronadula, N. Kambar, C. J. B. Metellus, N. R. Aluru, A. van der Zande, and C. Leal*, "Multiscale Compression-Induced Restructuring of Stacked Lipid Bilayers: From Buckling Delamination to Molecular Packing." PLOS ONE 17, 12, e0275079 (2022). DOI.


64. Y. K. Go, J. Shin, G. Chen, and C. Leal*, "Reorientation of Crystalline Block Copolymer Membranes by Phospholipid Hybridization." Chem. Mater. 34, 19, 8577–8592 (2022). DOI.


63. P. K. Singh, M. L. Pacholski, J. Gu, Y. K. Go, G. Singhal, C. Leal, P. V. Braun, K. A. Patankar, R. Drumright, S. A. Rogers, and C. M. Schroeder*, "Designing Multicomponent Polymer Colloids for Self-Stratifying Films." Langmuir. 38, 37, 11160–11170 (2022). DOI.


62. L. Zheng, S. R. Bandara, and C. Leal*, "Lipid Nanoparticle Topology Regulates Endosomal Escape and Delivery of RNA to the Cytoplasm." bioRxiv. 2022.05.20.492895 (2022). DOI.


61. M. Porras-Gómez, T. Shoaib, D. Steer, R. M. Espinosa-Marzal, and C. Leal*, "Pathological Cardiolipin-Promoted Membrane Hemifusion Stiffens Pulmonary Surfactant Membranes." Biophys. J. 121, 6, 886–896 (2022). DOI.


60. B. Soman, Y. K. Go, C. Shen, C. Leal, and C. Evans*, "Impact of Dynamic Covalent Chemistry and Precise Linker Length on Crystallization Kinetics and Morphology in Ethylene Vitrimers." Soft Matter, 18, 293-303 (2022). DOI.


59. J. Rueben, A. Jayaraman, M. K. Mahanthappa, and C. Leal*, "Near-Infrared-Triggered Reversible Transformations of Gold Nanorod-Laden Lipid Assemblies: Implications for Cellular Delivery." ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 5, 1, 710–717 (2022). DOI. ACS Editors' ChoiceACS Editors' Choice



58. Y. Go, and C. Leal*, "Polymer–Lipid Hybrid Materials" Chem. Rev. 121 (22), 13996–14030. (2021). DOI.


57. W Zhou, S. R. Bandara, C. Leal*, and S. Anakk* (equal contribution of first and last authors), "Lipid droplet structural remodeling in adipose tissue upon caloric excess." bioRxiv. 2021.08.23.457409 (2021). DOI.


56. Z. Tan, Z. Song, T. Xue, L. Zheng, L. Jiang, Y. Jiang, Z. Fu, A. Nguyen, C. Leal, and J. Cheng*, "Open-air synthesis of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polypeptides from non-purified N-carboxyanhydrides." Biomater. Sci. 9, 4120-4126 (2021). DOI.



55. M. Han, H. Kim, C. Leal*, M. Negrito, J. D. Batteas, and R. M. Espinoza-Marzal, "Insight into the Electrical Double Layer of Ionic Liquids Revealed through Its Temporal Evolution." Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2001313 (2020). DOI.


54. J. Koo, S. B. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Z. Xie, A. J. Bandodkar, J. Khalifeh, Y. Yan, H. Kim, M. K. Pezhouh, K. Doty, G. Lee, Y. Chen, S. M. Lee, D. D'Andrea, K. Jung, K. Lee, K. Li, S. Jo, H. Wang, J. Kim, J. Kim, S. Choi, W. J. Jang, Y. S. Oh, I. Park, S. S. Kwak, J. Park, D. Hong, X. Feng, C. Lee, A. Banks, C. Leal, H. M. Lee, Y. Huang, C. K. Franz, W. Z. Ray, M. MacEwan, S. Kang, and J. A. Rogers*, "Wirelessly controlled, bioresorbable drug delivery device with active valves that exploit electrochemically triggered crevice corrosion." Sci. Adv. 6, eabb1093 (2020). DOI.


53. Y. K. Go, N. Kambar, and C. Leal*, "Hybrid Unilamellar Vesicles of Phospholipids and Block Copolymers with Crystalline Domains" Polymers 12, 1232 (2020). DOI.


52. S. Lv, H. Kim, Z. Song, L. Feng, Y. Yang, R. Baumgartner, K. Tseng, S. J. Dillon, C. Leal, L. Yin*, and J. Cheng*, "Unimolecular Polypeptide Micelles via Ultrafast Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 142, 8570–8574 (2020). DOI.


51. T. A. Kim, C. Lamuta, H. Kim, C. Leal, and N. R. Sottos*, "Interfacial Force-focusing Effect in Mechanophore-linked Nanocomposites" Adv. Sci. 7, 1903464 (2020). DOI.


50. M. Kim, M. Porras-Gomez, and C. Leal*, "Graphene-based sensing of oxygen transport through pulmonary membranes" Nat. Commun. 11, 1-10 (2020). DOI.


49. S. R. Bandara, T. G. Molley, H. Kim, P. A. Bharath, K. A. Kilian*, and C. Leal*, "The structural fate of lipid nanoparticles in the extracellular matrix" Mater. Horiz. 7, 125-134 (2020). DOI.



48. H. Kim, M. Han, S. Bandara, R. M. Espinoza-Marzal*, and C. Leal*, "Mixing oil and water with ionic liquids: bicontinuous microemulsions under confinement" Soft Matter 15, 9609−9613 (2019). DOI.


47. M. Porras-Gomez, and C. Leal*, "Lipid-based liquid crystalline films and solutions for the delivery of cargo to cells" Liq. Cryst. Rev. 7:2, 167-182 (2019). DOI, PDF. (Featured in the journal cover)


46. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, Y. Li, K. K. Ewert, C. E. Samuel, and C. R. Safinya*, "3D Columnar Phase of Stacked Short DNA Organized by Coherent Membrane Undulations" Langmuir 35, 11891−11901 (2019). DOI.


45. J. Shin, J. Sung, M. Kang, X. Xie, B. Lee, K. M. Lee, T. J. White, C. Leal, N. Sottos, P. V. Braun, D. G. Cahill, "Light-triggered thermal conductivity switching in azobenzene polymers" Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116 (13) 5973-5978 (2019). DOI.



44. S. Leung, C. Leal*, "The stabilization of primitive bicontinuous cubic phases with tunable swelling over a wide composition range" Soft Matter 15, 1269–1277 (2019). DOI.


43. H. Kim, J. Sung, A. Alfeche, C. Leal*, "Microfluidics Synthesis of Gene Silencing Cubosomes" ACS Nano 12, 9196–9205 (2018). DOI.


42. M. Tuteja, M. Kang, C. Leal*, A. Centrone*, "Nanoscale Partioning of Paclitaxel in Hybrid Lipid-Polymer Membranes" Analyst 143, 3808-3813 (2018). DOI. (Featured in the journal cover)


41. D. Steer, S. S. H. Leung, H. Meiselman, D. Topgaard, C. Leal*, "Structure of Lung-Mimetic Multilamellar Bodies with Lipid Compositions Relevant in Pneumonia" Langmuir 34, 7561-7574 (2018). DOI


40. S. Y. Cho, M. Kang, J. Choi, M. E. Lee, H. J. Yoon, H. J. Kim, C. Leal, S. Lee, H. -J. Jin, Y. S. Yun, "Pyrolytic Carbon Nanosheets for Ultrafast and Ultrastable Sodium-Ion Storage" Small 14, 1703043 (9 pages) (2018).DOI


39. M. Kang, M. Tuteja, A. Centrone, D. Topgaard, C. Leal*, “Nanostructured Lipid-based Films for Substrate Mediated Applications in Biotechnology” Adv Funct Mater (Invited) 28, 1704356 (20 pages) (2018).DOI



38. M. Kang, B. Lee, C. Leal*, “Three-Dimensional Microphase Separation and Synergistic Permeability in Stacked Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Membranes” Chem Mater 29, 9120-9132 (2017).DOI


37. H. Kim, Z. Song, C. Leal*, “Super-swelled Lyotropic Single Crystals” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, 10834-10839 (2017). DOI

36. D. Steer, M. Kang, C. Leal*, “Soft nanostructured films for directing the assembly of functional materials” Nanotechnology 28, 14-30 (2017). DOI


35. M. Kang, H. Kim, C. Leal*, “Self-organization of nucleic acids in lipid constructs” Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 26, 58-65 (2016). DOI

34. R. Mansbach, A. Ferguson, K. Kilian, J. Krogstad, C. Leal, A. Schleife, D. R. Trinkle, M. West, G. L. Herman, “Reforming an undergraduate materials science curriculum with computational modules” J Mater Educ 38, 161-174 (2016). PDF

33. S. Uzan, H. Kim, C. Leal, G.W. Padua, “Ethanol-induced whey protein gels as carriers for lutein droplets” Food Hydrocoll 61, 426-432 (2016). DOI

32. J. Shin, M. Kang, T. Tsai, C. Leal, P.V. Braun, D.G. Cahill, “Thermally functional liquid crystal networks by magnetic field driven molecular orientation” ACS Macro Lett 5, 955-960 (2016). DOI

31. M. Kang, C. Leal*, “Soft Nanostructured Films for Actuated Surface-Based siRNA Delivery” Adv Funct Mater 26, 5610-5620 (2016). DOI (Featured in the journal cover)

30. L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Rossi, A. Arcifa, J.K. Schuh, N.D. Spencer, C. Leal, R.H. Ewoldt, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, “Effect of the environmental humidity on the bulk, interfacial and nanoconfined properties of an ionic liquid” Phys Chem Chem Phys 18, 22719-22730 (2016). DOI

29. Y.S. Yun, S. Lee, N.R. Kim, M. Kang, C. Leal, K.Y. Park, K. Kang, H.J. Jin, “High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials” J Power Sources 313, 142-151 (2016). DOI

28. N.R. Kim, Y.S. Yun, M.Y. Song, S.J. Hong, M. Kang, C. Leal, Y.W. Park, H.J. Jin, “Citrus peel-derived, nanoporous carbon nanosheets containing redox-active heteroatoms for sodium-ion storage” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8, 3175-3181 (2016)


27. C.H. Lee, H. Kim, D.V. Harburg, G. Park, Y. Ma, T. Pan, J.S.Kim, N.Y. Lee, B.H. Kim, K. Jang, S. Kang, Y. Huang, J. Kim, K. Lee, C. Leal*, J. Rogers*, “Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants” NPG Asia Mater 7(e227), 969-973 (2015). DOI

26. H. Kim, C. Leal*, "Cuboplexes: Topologically Active siRNA Delivery" ACS Nano 9, 10214-10226 (2015). DOI

25. Z. Song, H. Kim, X. Ba, R. Baumgartner, J.S. Lee, H. Tang, C. Leal*, J Cheng*, "Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes" Soft Matter 20, 4091-4098 (2015). DOI

24. L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Arcifa, A. Rossi, C. Leal, N.D. Spencer, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, "Irreversible structural change of a dry ionic liquid under nanoconfinement" Phys Chem Chem Phys 17, 13613 –13624 (2015).

23. B.H. Kim, M.S. Onses, J.B. Lim, S. Nam, N. Oh, H. Kim, K.J. Yu, J.W. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kang, C.H. Lee, J. Lee, J.H. Shin, N.H. Kim, C. Leal, M. Shim, J.A. Rogers, “High-Resolution patterns of quantum dots formed by electrohydrodynamic jet printing for light-emitting diodes” Nano Lett 15, 969-973 (2015). DOI


22. M. Kang, G. Huang, C. Leal*, "Role of lipid polymorphism in acoustically sensitive liposomes" Soft Matter 10, 8846–8854 (2014). DOI

21. C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, C. Leal, "Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing" New J Chem 38, 5164 –5172 (2014).

20. C. L. Chan, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, Y.-K Hwu, K. S. Liang, C. Leal, C. R. Safinya “Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content” J Gene Med 16, 84-96 (2014). DOI

Book Chapters

The hydration of DNA – amphiphile complexes: C. Leal and H. Wennerström in DNA Interactions with polymers and surfactants, Dias, R.S. and Lindman, B. (eds). Wiley-Blackwell, Boston, MA, 2008. (Featured in the book cover)

Education papers

G.M. Lu, D. R. Trinkle, A. Schleife, C. Leal, J. A. Krogstad, R. Maass, P. Bellon, P. Y. Huang, N. H. Perry, M. West, T. Bretl, G. L. Herman "Impact of Integrating Computation into Undergraduate Curriculum: New Modules and Long-term Trends" Paper presented at the 2020 ASEE Virtual Conference, June 22-26, 2020. ASEE

C.-W. Lee, A. Schleife, D. R. Trinkle, J. A. Krogstad, R. Maass, P. Bellon, J. K. Shang, C. Leal, M. West, T. Bretl, G. L. Herman, S. Tang "Impact of Computational Curricular Reform on Non-participating Undergraduate Courses: Student and Faculty Perspective" Paper presented at 2019 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) 126th Annual Conference & Exposition, Tampa, FL, June 16-19, 2019. ASEE

X. Zhang, A. Schleife, A. Ferguson, T. Bretl, G. L. Herman, J. Krogstad, R. Maass, C. Leal, D. R. Trinkle, M. West "Computational Curriculum for MatSE Undergraduates: Three-year impact and influence on senior computational courses" Paper presented at 2018 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) 125th Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, UT, June 24-27, 2018. ASEE

A. Kononov, P. Bellon, T. Bretl, A.L. Ferguson, G.L. Herman, K.A. Kilian, J.A. Krogstad, C. Leal, C.R. Maass, A. Schleife, J.K. Shang, D.R. Trinkle, and M. West "Computational Curriculum for MatSE Undergraduates" Paper presented at 2017 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) 124th Annual Conference & Exposition, Columbus, OH, June 25-28 2017. ASEE

Older Publications:


  1. C. R. Safinya, J. Deek, R. Beck, J. B. Jones, C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, "Liquid crystal assemblies in biologically inspired systems" Liq Cryst 40, 1748–1758 (2013). DOI

  2. C. Leal*, K. K. Ewert, N. F. Bouxsein, R. S. Shirazi, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Stacking of Short DNA Induces the Gyroid Cubic-to-Inverted Hexagonal Phase Transition in Lipid–DNA Complexes” Soft Matter 9, 795–804 (2013).


  1. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, B. F. B. Silva, C. Leal, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker” Langmuir 28, 10495–10503 (2012).
    DOI. (Featured in the journal cover)


  1. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, R. N. Majzoub, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Synthesis and Characterization of Degradable Multivalent Cationic Lipids with Disulfide-Bond Spacers for Gene Delivery” Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembranes 1808, 2156–2166 (2011).

  2. C. Leal*, K. K. Ewert, R. S. Shirazi, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing” Langmuir 27, 7691–7697 (2011).

  3. C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, “Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes: liquid crystal phases with applications in gene therapy” Liq Cryst 38, 1715–1723 (2011). DOI

  4. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, “Two-Dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Nonpairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics” J Am Chem Soc 133, 7585–7595 (2011). DOI


  1. C. Leal*, N. F. Bouxsein, K. K. Ewert, C. R. Safinya, “Highly efficient gene silencing activity of siRNA embedded in a nanostructured gyroid cubic lipid matrix” J Am Chem Soc 132, 16841–16847 (2010). DOI


  1. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “The Effect of Postadded Ethylene Glycol Surfactants on DNA-Cationic Surfactant/Water Mesophases” J Phys Chem B 113, 9909–9914 (2009). DOI


  1. C. Leal, S. Rögnvaldsson, S. Fossheim, E. Nilssen, D. Topgaard, "Dynamic and structural aspects of PEGylated liposomes monitored by NMR” J Colloid Interface Sci 325, 485–493 (2008). DOI

  2. C. Leal, D. Sandström, P. Nevsten, D. Topgaard, “Local and translational dynamics in DNA–lipid assemblies monitored by solid-state and diffusion NMR” Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembranes 1778, 214–228 (2008). DOI


  1. C. Leal, E. Moniri, L. Pegado, H. Wennerström, “Electrostatic Attraction between DNA and a Cationic Surfactant Aggregate. The Screening Effect of Salt” J Phys Chem B 111, 5999–6005 (2007). DOI


  1. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “Phase Behavior of a DNA-Based Surfactant Mixed with Water and n-Alcohols” J Phys Chem B 110, 17221–17229 (2006).DOI


  1. A. Bilalov, C. Leal, B. Lindman, “Mixing Oil and Water by a DNA-Based Surfactant” J Phys Chem B 108, 15408–15414 (2004). DOI

  2. C. Leal, D. Topgaard, H. Wennerström, “NMR Studies of Molecular Mobility in a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J Phys Chem B 108, 15392–15397 (2004). DOI

  3. C. Leal, L. Wadsö, G. Olofsson, M. Miguel, H. Wennerström, “The Hydration of a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J Phys Chem B 108, 3044–3050 (2004).DOI


  1. M. Miguel, A. Pais, R. Dias, C. Leal, M. Rosa, B. Lindman, “DNA-cationic Amphiphile Interactions” Colloids and Surfaces A 228, 43–55 (2003). DOI


  1. B. Lindman, S. Mel’nikov, Y. Mel’nikova, T. Nylander, K. Eskilsson, M. Miguel, R. Dias, C. Leal, “DNA–lipid systems. An amphiphile self-assembly and polymer–surfactant perspective” Progr Colloid Polym Sci 120, 52–63 (2002).DOI


  1. K. Eskilsson, C. Leal, B. Lindman, M. Miguel, T. Nylander, “DNA−Surfactant Complexes at Solid Surfaces” Langmuir. 17, 1666–1669 (2001). DOI