Book Chapters

The hydration of DNA – amphiphile complexes: C. Leal and H. Wennerström in DNA Interactions with polymers and surfactants, Dias, R.S. and Lindman, B. (eds). Wiley-Blackwell, Boston, MA, 2008. (Featured in the book cover)

Conference papers

A. Kononov, P. Bellon, T. Bretl, A.L. Ferguson, G.L. Herman, K.A. Kilian, J.A. Krogstad, C. Leal, C.R. Maass, A. Schleife, J.K. Shang, D.R. Trinkle, and M. West "Computational Curriculum for MatSE Undergraduates" Paper presented at 2017 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) 124th Annual Conference & Exposition, Columbus, OH, June 25-28 2017. ASEE



40. M. Kang, M. Tujela, A. Centrone, D. Topgaard, C. Leal, “Nanostructured Lipid-based Films for Substrate Mediated Applications in Biotechnology” Adv Funct Mater (Invited) In Press, (2018).DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704356. Check out the video abstract HERE!




39. M. Kang, B. Lee, C. Leal, “Three-Dimensional Microphase Separation and Synergistic Permeability in Stacked Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Membranes” Chem Mater 29, 9120-9132 (2017).DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02845


38. H. Kim, Z. Song, C. Leal, “Super-swelled Lyotropic Single Crystals” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, 10834-10839 (2017). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1710774114

37. D. Steer, M. Kang, C. Leal, “Soft nanostructured films for directing the assembly of functional materials” Nanotechnology 28, 14-30 (2017). DOI:


36. M. Kang, H. Kim, C. Leal, “Self-organization of nucleic acids in lipid constructs” Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 26, 58-65 (2016). DOI:


35. R. Mansbach, A. Ferguson, K. Kilian, J. Krogstad, C. Leal, A. Schleife, D. R. Trinkle, M. West, G. L. Herman, “Reforming an undergraduate materials science curriculum with computational modules” J Mater Educ 38, 161-174 (2016). pdf


34. S. Uzan, H. Kim, C. Leal, G.W. Padua, “Ethanol-induced whey protein gels as carriers for lutein droplets” Food Hydrocoll 61, 426-432 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.05.013.


33. J. Shin, M. Kang, T. Tsai, C. Leal, P.V. Braun, D.G. Cahill, “Thermally functional liquid crystal networks by magnetic field driven molecular orientation” ACS Macro Lett 5, 955-960 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.6b00475.


32. M. Kang, C. Leal, “Soft Nanostructured Films for Actuated Surface-Based siRNA Delivery” Adv Funct Mater 26, 5610-5620 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600681.


31. L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Rossi, A. Arcifa, J.K. Schuh, N.D. Spencer, C. Leal, R.H. Ewoldt, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, “Effect of the environmental humidity on the bulk, interfacial and nanoconfined properties of an ionic liquid” Phys Chem Chem Phys 18, 22719-22730 (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6CP03777A.


30. Y.S. Yun, S. Lee, N.R. Kim, M. Kang, C. Leal, K.Y. Park, K. Kang, H.J. Jin, “High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials” J Power Sources 313, 142-151 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.02.068.


29. N.R. Kim, Y.S. Yun, M.Y. Song, S.J. Hong, M. Kang, C. Leal, Y.W. Park, H.J. Jin, “Citrus peel-derived, nanoporous carbon nanosheets containing redox-active heteroatoms for sodium-ion storage” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8, 3175-3181 (2016).
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b10657.



28. C.H. Lee, H. Kim, D.V. Harburg, G. Park, Y. Ma, T. Pan, J.S.Kim, N.Y. Lee, B.H. Kim, K. Jang, S. Kang, Y. Huang, J. Kim, K. Lee, C. Leal, J. Rogers, “Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants” NPG Asia Mater 7(e227), 969-973 (2015). DOI: 10.1038/am.2015.114.


27. H. Kim, C. Leal, "Cuboplexes: Topologically Active siRNA Delivery" ACS Nano, 9, 10214-10226 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03902.


26. Z. Song, H. Kim, X. Ba, R. Baumgartner, J.S. Lee, H. Tang, C. Leal, J Cheng. "Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes" Soft Matter 20, 4091-4098 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00820D.


25. L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Arcifa, A. Rossi, C. Leal, N.D. Spencer, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, "Irreversible structural change of a dry ionic liquid under nanoconfinement" Phys Chem Chem Phys 17, 13613 –13624 (2015).
DOI: 10.1039/C4CP05592F.


24. B.H. Kim, M.S. Onses, J.B. Lim, S. Nam, N. Oh, H. Kim, K.J. Yu, J.W. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kang, C.H. Lee, J. Lee, J.H. Shin, N.H. Kim, C. Leal, M. Shim, J.A. Rogers, “High-Resolution patterns of quantum dots formed by electrohydrodynamic jet printing for light-emitting diodes” Nano Lett 15(2), 969-973 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/nl503779e.



23. M. Kang, G. Huang, C. Leal, "Role of lipid polymorphism in acoustically sensitive liposomes" Soft Matter 10, 8846–8854 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C4SM01431F.


22. C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, C. Leal, "Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing" New J Chem 38, 5164 –5172 (2014).
DOI: 10.1039/C4NJ01314J.


21. C.-L. Chan, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, Y.-K Hwu, K. S. Liang, C. Leal, C. R. Safinya “Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content” J Gene Med 16, 84-96 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/jgm.2762.


Older Publications:


  1. C. R. Safinya, J. Deek, R. Beck, J. B. Jones, C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, "Liquid crystal assemblies in biologically inspired systems" Liq Cryst 40, 1748–1758 (2013). DOI: 10.1080/02678292.2013.846422.

  2. C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, N. F. Bouxsein, R. S. Shirazi, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Stacking of Short DNA Induces the Gyroid Cubic-to-Inverted Hexagonal Phase Transition in Lipid–DNA Complexes” Soft Matter 9, 795–804 (2013).
    DOI: 10.1039/C2SM27018H

  3. 2012

  4. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, B. F. B. Silva, C. Leal, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker” Langmuir 28, 10495–10503 (2012).
    DOI: 10.1021/la301181b. (Featured in the journal cover)

  5. 2011

  6. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, R. N. Majzoub, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Synthesis and Characterization of Degradable Multivalent Cationic Lipids with Disulfide-Bond Spacers for Gene Delivery” Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembranes 1808, 2156–2166 (2011).

  7. C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, R. S. Shirazi, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing” Langmuir 27, 7691–7697 (2011).

  8. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, “Two-Dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Nonpairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics” J Am Chem Soc 133, 7585–7595 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ja202082c

  9. C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, “Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes: liquid crystal phases with applications in gene therapy” Liq Cryst 38, 1715–1723 (2011). DOI:10.1080/02678292.2011.624364.

  10. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, “Two-Dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Nonpairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics” J Am Chem Soc 133, 7585–7595 (2011). DOI:10.1021/ja202082c.

  11. 2010

  12. C. Leal, N. F. Bouxsein, K. K. Ewert, C. R. Safinya, “Highly efficient gene silencing activity of siRNA embedded in a nanostructured gyroid cubic lipid matrix” J Am Chem Soc 132, 16841–16847 (2010). DOI:10.1021/ja1059763.

  13. 2009

  14. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “The Effect of Postadded Ethylene Glycol Surfactants on DNA-Cationic Surfactant/Water Mesophases” J Phys Chem B 113, 9909–9914 (2009). DOI:10.1021/jp810185k.

  15. 2008

  16. C. Leal, S. Rögnvaldsson, S. Fossheim, E. Nilssen, D. Topgaard, "Dynamic and structural aspects of PEGylated liposomes monitored by NMR” J Colloid Interface Sci 325, 485–493 (2008). DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2008.05.051.

  17. C. Leal, D. Sandström, P. Nevsten, D. Topgaard, “Local and translational dynamics in DNA–lipid assemblies monitored by solid-state and diffusion NMR” Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembranes 1778, 214–228 (2008). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.09.035.

  18. 2007

  19. C. Leal, E. Moniri, L. Pegado, H. Wennerström, “Electrostatic Attraction between DNA and a Cationic Surfactant Aggregate. The Screening Effect of Salt” J Phys Chem B 111, 5999–6005 (2007). DOI:10.1021/jp065358h.

  20. 2006

  21. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “Phase Behavior of a DNA-Based Surfactant Mixed with Water and n-Alcohols” J Phys Chem B 110, 17221–17229 (2006).DOI:10.1021/jp062151f.

  22. 2004

  23. A. Bilalov, C. Leal, B. Lindman, “Mixing Oil and Water by a DNA-Based Surfactant” J Phys Chem B 108, 15408–15414 (2004). DOI:10.1021/jp048219d.

  24. C. Leal, D. Topgaard, H. Wennerström, “NMR Studies of Molecular Mobility in a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J Phys Chem B 108, 15392–15397 (2004). DOI:10.1021/jp0480495.

  25. C. Leal, L. Wadsö, G. Olofsson, M. Miguel, H. Wennerström, “The Hydration of a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J Phys Chem B 108, 3044–3050 (2004).DOI:10.1021/jp030850b.

  26. 2003

  27. M. Miguel, A. Pais, R. Dias, C. Leal, M. Rosa, B. Lindman, “DNA-cationic Amphiphile Interactions” Colloids and Surfaces A 228, 43–55 (2003). DOI:10.1016/S0927-7757(03)00334-0.

  28. 2002

  29. B. Lindman, S. Mel’nikov, Y. Mel’nikova, T. Nylander, K. Eskilsson, M. Miguel, R. Dias, C. Leal, “DNA–lipid systems. An amphiphile self-assembly and polymer–surfactant perspective” Progr Colloid Polym Sci 120, 52–63 (2002).DOI:10.1007/3-540-45291-5_8.

  30. 2001

  31. K. Eskilsson, C. Leal, B. Lindman, M. Miguel, T. Nylander, “DNA−Surfactant Complexes at Solid Surfaces” Langmuir. 17, 1666–1669 (2001). DOI:10.1021/la000993e