Book Chapter

The hydration of DNA – amphiphile complexes: C. Leal and H. Wennerström in DNA Interactions with polymers and surfactants, Dias, R.S. and Lindman, B. (eds). Wiley-Blackwell, Boston, MA, 2008. (Featured in the book cover)


D. Steer, M. Kang, C. Leal, “Soft nanostructured films for directing the assembly of functional materials” Nanotechnology 28, 14 (2017). DOI:


M. Kang, H. Kim, C. Leal, “Self-organization of nucleic acids in lipid constructs” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science 26, 58-65 (2016). DOI:
R. Mansbach, A. Ferguson, K. Kilian, J. Krogstad, C. Leal, A. Schleife, D. R. Trinkle, M. West, G. L. Herman, “Reforming an undergraduate materials science curriculum with computational modules” Journal of Materials Education 38, 161-174 (2016).
S. Uzan, H. Kim, C. Leal. G.W. Padua, “Ethanol-induced whey protein gels as carriers for lutein droplets” Food Hydrocolloids 61, 426-432 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.05.013.
J. Shin, M. Kang, T. Tsai, C. Leal, P.V. Braun, D.G. Cahill, “Thermally functional liquid crystal networks by magnetic field driven molecular orientation” ACS Macro Lett 5, 955-960 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsmacrolett.6b00475.
M. Kang, C. Leal, “Soft Nanostructured Films for Actuated Surface-Based siRNA Delivery” Adv Funct Mater 26, 5610–5620 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600681.
L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Rossi, A. Arcifa, J.K. Schuh, N.D. Spencer, C. Leal, R.H. Ewoldt, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, “Effect of the environmental humidity on the bulk, interfacial and nanoconfined properties of an ionic liquid” Phys Chem Chem Phys 18, 22719-22730 (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6CP03777A.
Y.S. Yun, S. Lee, N.R. Kim, M. Kang, C. Leal, K.Y. Park, K. Kang, H.J. Jin, “High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials” J Power Sources 313, 142-151 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.02.068.
N.R. Kim, Y.S. Yun, M.Y. Song, S.J. Hong, M. Kang, C. Leal, Y.W. Park, H.J. Jin, “Citrus peel-derived, nanoporous carbon nanosheets containing redox-active heteroatoms for sodium-ion storage ”ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5),3175-3181 (2016).
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b10657.


C.H. Lee, H. Kim, D.V. Harburg, G. Park, Y. Ma, T. Pan, J.S.Kim, N.Y. Lee, B.H. Kim, K. Jang, S. Kang, Y. Huang, J. Kim, K. Lee, C. Leal, J. Rogers, “Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants” NPG. Asia. Mater. 7(e227), 969-973 (2015). DOI: 10.1038/am.2015.114.
H. Kim, C. Leal,. “Cuboplexes: Topologically Active siRNA Delivery“ ACS Nano, 9, 10214–10226 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03902..
Z. Song, H. Kim, X. Ba, R. Baumgartner, J.S. Lee, H. Tang, C. Leal, J Cheng. “Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes“ Soft Matter 20, 4091-4098 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00820D.
L.A. Jurado, H. Kim, A. Arcifa, A. Rossi, C. Leal, N.D. Spencer, R.M. Espinosa-Marzal, “Irreversible structural change of a dry ionic liquid under nanoconfinement“ Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 13613 –13624 (2015).
DOI: 10.1039/C4CP05592F.
B.H. Kim, M.S. Onses, J.B. Lim, S. Nam, N. Oh, H. Kim, K.J. Yu, J.W. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kang, C.H. Lee, J. Lee, J.H. Shin, N.H. Kim, C. Leal, M. Shim, J.A. Rogers, “High-Resolution patterns of quantum dots formed by electrohydrodynamic jet printing for light-emitting diodes” Nano. Lett. 15(2), 969-973 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/nl503779e.


M. Kang, G. Huang, C. Leal, “Role of lipid polymorphism in acoustically sensitive liposomes“ Soft Matter 10, 8846–8854 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C4SM01431F.
C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, C. Leal, “Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing“ New J. Chem. 38, 5164 –5172 (2014).
DOI: 10.1039/C4NJ01314J.
  C.-L. Chan, K. K. Ewert, R. N. Majzoub, Y.-K Hwu, K. S. Liang, C. Leal, C. R. Safinya “Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content” J Gene Med 16, 84-96 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/jgm.2762.

Older Publications:


  1. C. R. Safinya, J. Deek, R. Beck, J. B. Jones, C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, "Liquid crystal assemblies in biologically inspired systems" Liq. Cryst. 40, 1748–1758 (2013). DOI: 10.1080/02678292.2013.846422.
  2. C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, N. F. Bouxsein, R. S. Shirazi, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Stacking of Short DNA Induces the Gyroid Cubic-to-Inverted Hexagonal Phase Transition in Lipid–DNA Complexes” Soft Matter 9, 795–804 (2013).
    DOI: 10.1039/C2SM27018H
  3. 2012

  4. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, B. F. B. Silva, C. Leal, Y. Li, C. R. Safinya, “Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker” Langmuir 28, 10495–10503 (2012).
    DOI: 10.1021/la301181b. (Featured in the journal cover)
  5. 2011

  6. R. S. Shirazi, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, R. N. Majzoub, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Synthesis and Characterization of Degradable Multivalent Cationic Lipids with Disulfide-Bond Spacers for Gene Delivery” Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Biomembranes 1808, 2156–2166 (2011).
    DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.04.020.
  7. C. Leal, K. K. Ewert, R. S. Shirazi, N. F. Bouxsein, C. R. Safinya, “Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing” Langmuir 27, 7691–7697 (2011).
    DOI: 10.1021/la200679x.
  8. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, “Two-Dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Nonpairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 7585–7595 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ja202082c
  9. C. R. Safinya, K. K. Ewert, C. Leal, “Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes: liquid crystal phases with applications in gene therapy” Liq. Cryst. 38, 1715–1723 (2011). DOI: 10.1080/02678292.2011.624364.
  10. N. F. Bouxsein, C. Leal, C. S. McAllister, K. K. Ewert, Y. Li, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, “Two-Dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Nonpairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 7585–7595 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ja202082c.
  11. 2010

  12. C. Leal, N. F. Bouxsein, K. K. Ewert, C. R. Safinya, “Highly efficient gene silencing activity of siRNA embedded in a nanostructured gyroid cubic lipid matrix” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 16841–16847 (2010). DOI: 10.1021/ja1059763.
  13. 2009

  14. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “The Effect of Postadded Ethylene Glycol Surfactants on DNA-Cationic Surfactant/Water Mesophases” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9909–9914 (2009). DOI: 10.1021/jp810185k.
  15. 2008

  16. C. Leal, S. Rögnvaldsson, S. Fossheim, E. Nilssen, D. Topgaard, "Dynamic and structural aspects of PEGylated liposomes monitored by NMR” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 485–493 (2008). DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2008.05.051.
  17. C. Leal, D. Sandström, P. Nevsten, D. Topgaard, “Local and translational dynamics in DNA–lipid assemblies monitored by solid-state and diffusion NMR” Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Biomembranes 1778, 214–228 (2008). DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.09.035.
  18. 2007

  19. C. Leal, E. Moniri, L. Pegado, H. Wennerström, “Electrostatic Attraction between DNA and a Cationic Surfactant Aggregate. The Screening Effect of Salt” J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5999–6005 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/jp065358h.
  20. 2006

  21. C. Leal, A. Bilalov, B. Lindman, “Phase Behavior of a DNA-Based Surfactant Mixed with Water and n-Alcohols” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17221–17229 (2006). DOI: 10.1021/jp062151f.
  22. 2004

  23. A. Bilalov, C. Leal , B. Lindman, “Mixing Oil and Water by a DNA-Based Surfactant” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15408–15414 (2004). DOI: 10.1021/jp048219d.
  24. C. Leal, D. Topgaard, H. Wennerström, “NMR Studies of Molecular Mobility in a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15392–15397 (2004). DOI: 10.1021/jp0480495.
  25. C. Leal, L. Wadsö, G. Olofsson, M. Miguel, H. Wennerström, “The Hydration of a DNA−Amphiphile Complex” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3044–3050 (2004). DOI: 10.1021/jp030850b.
  26. 2003

  27. M. Miguel, A. Pais, R. Dias, C. Leal, M. Rosa, B. Lindman, “DNA-cationic Amphiphile Interactions” Colloids and Surfaces A 228, 43–55 (2003). DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(03)00334-0.
  28. 2002

  29. B. Lindman, S. Mel’nikov, Y. Mel’nikova, T. Nylander, K. Eskilsson, M. Miguel, R. Dias, C. Leal, “DNA–lipid systems. An amphiphile self-assembly and polymer–surfactant perspective” Progr. Colloid Polym. Sci. 120, 52–63 (2002). DOI: 10.1007/3-540-45291-5_8.
  30. 2001

  31. K. Eskilsson, C. Leal, B. Lindman, M. Miguel, T. Nylander, “DNA−Surfactant Complexes at Solid Surfaces” Langmuir. 17, 1666–1669 (2001). DOI: 10.1021/la000993e